Comparison of Field-Dependent and-Independent Individuals in Visual Memory and Distance Perception
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Authors
1Assistant Professor in Motor Behavior, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran,
2Bu Ali Sina University
Abstract
Introduction: Cognitive styles are specialized methods of information processing in individuals that in most cases indicate experiences in perception, learning and memory. On the other hand, perceptual and visual memory have been introduced as two effective factors in performance and learning of motor skills. Therefore, this study aimed to compare individuals with cognitive styles of neutral, field-dependent and -independent in visual memory and distance perception.
Methodology: To this end, based on Witkin’s Groups Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), 100 students of sport sciences were evaluated and divided into three groups: field-dependent, field-independent and neutral. All participants were then tested based on the Direct Blind Walking Test (DBWT) and Kim-Karad visual memory test (KKVMT). The Kim-Karad test was performed in three stages (phase 1, 2 and 3), evaluating respectively the sensory, short-term, and long-term visual memory of the participants. In the DBWT, participants were compared based on error in reaching the target (in centimeter).
Results: The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the three groups in distance perception. However, the field-independent group had better performance than the field-dependent and natural groups in the third phase of the visual memory test.
Discussion: These results suggest that individual’s cognitive style would not be considered as an effective factor in the cases of distance perception and visual sensory and short-term memories. However, in term of long-term memory, being cognitively field-independent could result in better performance. This can be explained by Witkin’s field dependence/independence theory proposing the superiority of field-independent individuals in their mental imagery and precision and being able to focus on details of objects.
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