The effect of variability of practice on performance and learning of children’s basic gymnastics skills
Poster Presentation XML
Shahrekord university
Introduction: One of the factors influencing motor learning is the amount of practice's variability. Variability of practice means performing a skill in a situation where the needs of the task and environment are variable. Theoretically, there is strong support for the variability of the practice. The major challenge facing the variability of practice is to answer the question which of aspects of skill should be changed and how this variability be presented at training session. According to this challenge the aim of this study was to examine the effects of variability of generalized motor program (GMP) and parameter on performance and learning of basic gymnastic skills in children 3-6 years old.
Methodology: The study population included 90 children 3-6 years old enrolled in the gymnastics classes. Forty children were randomly selected from the list of registered names, and randomly divided into four equals’ experimental groups (3.87±0.65 years): stable GMP and parameter, variable GMP and stable parameter, stable GMP and variable parameter and variable GMP and parameter. Each group performed balance, jump and tumbling skills based on their practice schedule for 12 sessions, three sessions in week for one hour. Acquisition, retention and transfer tests were performed immediately and 48 hours later respectively. Performing all the tests were filmed and the score of each subject was extracted based on total average scores of the three official referees who had certificate from gymnastics federation.the data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and repeated measure ANOVA and Bonfire’s post hoc test with alpha set at 0.05.
Results: The results showed that there were significant effect of practice and interaction between practice and program type in balance skill (p<0.05). There were significant effect type of program and effect of practice in jumping skill (p<0.05) and significant effect of practice in tumbling skill (p<0.05).
Discussion: In this study, balance, jumping and tumbling skills were differently influenced by variability in motor program and parameter. The results of this study, contrary to most of the studies that have shown that the variability in the motor program and in the parameter could lead to more retention and transfer, emphasized further in the acquisition stage. Practice independent of the type of practice program affected on learning and performance of all three skills and balance and jump skills were influenced by the type of practice program's variability.