The difference between collective efficacy and emotional sport among healthy and disable athletes
Poster Presentation XML
University of Tabriz
Introduction: The emotional states of athletes have been shown to be very important in determining successful performance. Emotion is primarily thought of as an individual state; but emotions are capable of being communicated and passed on to others both verbally and nonverbally. Also Collective efficacy is one of the branches of sport psychology that in time of coordination and integration is being shared as a required response. So the purpose of this study was to determine the difference among healthy and disable athletes in two factor of psychology between Collective efficacy and emotional.
Methodology: The research method was causal-comparative. For this purpose, 41 male disable athlete (ages 22-55) and 43 male healthy athlete (ages 16-52) from Paralympic of Tabriz had been selected by cluster sampling method. Athletes participated in volleyball, basketball, football and futsal that mean of sports background of disabled athletes was 11/78±9/94 and healthy athlete was 7/95±3/96. In the research, Collective Efficacy Questionnaire for Sports (CEQS) was used to assess perceived team collective efficacy with five factor. This 20-item questionnaire developed and validated by Short, Sullivan, and Feltz (2005). Also Modified Sport Emotion 22-item Questionnaire (SEQ) was used to evaluation team emotion prior to home and away matches. Jones, Lane, Bray, Uphill, and Catlin (2005) developed and validated the questionnaire as a precompetitive measure of emotion in sport settings. The 22 items are divided into 5 overarching emotion categories including: anxiety, dejection, excitement, anger and happiness. After coordination with the coaches of the teams, the questionnaires were distributed among athletes two months before the competition. Data analysis was done by Descriptive statistics and Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with SPSS-20 software.
Results: The results showed significant difference between total of sport emotion and total of collective efficacy among of healthy and disable athletes (F(2,81)=3.79, p<0.027). Further analysis showed significant differences only in factor of anxiety from sport emotion between healthy and disabled athletes (F(1,82)= 12.21, p<0.001). However, according score of mean, disable athletes have score of mean more than healthy athletes.
Discussion: Results suggest that coach for disable athletes must use from mental training for decrease anxiety as one of factors of emotion.