The effect of visual, proprioception and vestibular systems on postural control in Intellectual disabled students.
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Authors
1MSc Student, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3Faculty Member of Faculty of Physical Education, University of Guilan
Abstract
Introduction: Postural control is a broad term used to describe a complex mixture of various abilities. The postural balance system is complex and requires interaction between musculoskeletal and neural subsystems such as visual, vestibular, and proprioception systems. Intellectual disability is a condition of arrest or incomplete development of the mind, which does not only affect cognitive functions, but motor functions as well. Limitations in mobility have been reported to be common in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), which suggests that the prevalence of balance and gait problems is also high. Thus, the aim of present research was to examine the effect of visual, proprioception and vestibular systems manipulation on postural control in three groups of girls with Intellectual Disability.
Methodology: Sixty girls with Intellectual Disability were assessed in groups of 7-9, 10-12 and 18-16 years old (N=20). Postural control was evaluated in four conditions: 1-open eyes on hard surface (All three sensory systems are available), 2-open eyes and hyper extended head on soft surface (The visual system is available), 3-closed eyes and hyper extended head on hard surface (The proprioception system is available), 4-closed eyes on soft surface (The vestibular system is available). Collected data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc test via SPSS software, version 21 (P<0.05).
Results: The research findings indicated that there was the significant differences in postural control in all of the three groups. Based on the results there are significant differences: in conditions 2 and 3 between groups 1-3 and 2-3, in condition 1 between groups 1-3 and in condition 4 between 1-2, 2-3 and 1-3.
Discussion: These results support recent findings suggesting that Sensory systems for children with Intellectual Disability up to the age of 16-18 are still growing and maturing in terms of organizing and integrating with other systems in postural control. Participants in all three groups were able to provide better postural control using visual information from three sensory systems. Therefore, in these people, up to the age of 18-16, visual information is more important to maintaining balance. It is recommended that special attention be paid to games and activities involving sensory systems in these schools, So that in case of any disturbances in one of the sensory systems, the cooperation and overlapping of the other two systems will be well done.
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