The effect of quiet eye training on gaze behaviors and anticipation in soccer penalty kick of expert soccer goalkeepers
Oral Presentation XML
1Kharazmi University
2دانشیار دانشگاه شهید بهشتی
3استاد دانشگاه خوارزمی
4دانشیار دانشکده تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران
Introduction: Anticipating the direction of the ball during a football penalty kick is one of the most challenging skills for a goalkeeper due to the short distance between the penalty mark and the goal (11 m), and the penalty kick generates a strong anxiety for the goalkeeper. Knowing where and when to look is critical for effective anticipation in penalty. In recent years, a particular gaze called quiet eye (QE) has gained growing attention among researchers investigating interceptive timing tasks and has become accepted within the literature as a measure of optimal attentional control for successfully anticipation. Also, Studies in anticipation, trying to using novel and most efficient methods to improving this perceptual capability. Previous studies consistently displayed that longer QE is associated with superior anticipation, however there is lack of understanding how QE trainings can enhance anticipation in interceptive tasks like penalty. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of QE training on anticipation of soccer penalty kick by expert goalkeepers using temporal occlusion paradigm.
Methodology: Concurrent with anticipation score, their gaze behaviors (including, Number of fixations, Duration of Fixation, duration of last fixation and fixation’s location) while suing advanced cues to better decision making are monitored using “Pupil” binocular eye tracker. After pretest, 20 expert goalkeepers were assigned randomly to training and placebo groups. Training was four sessions with 48 hours’ interval and finally post-test, 72 hour’s delay retention and transfer under pressure were conducted. Raw data analyzed using Pupil software and final amounts were extracted to statistical analysis.
Results: The results of 2×2×3 mixed ANOVA with repeated measure on phase factor (p=0.05) shown that anticipation’ scores (height and accurate anticipation) showed significant improvement form pretest to retention but anticipation of direction not significantly changed. Analysis of gaze data showed that gaze behavior changed significantly, number fixations decreased, fixation duration increased and fixation’s location (AOI) was changed due to training instructions. In post-test, retention and transfer under pressure, non-kicking foot, space between non-kicking foot and ball, trunk and hip have highest frequency of fixation. All changes in was consistent in transfer test under pressure. Effectiveness of QE training are like previous findings. Concurrent with improvement of anticipation, gaze efficiency enhances, number of fixations decrease and its duration increased.
Discussion: Overall, according to current findings, seems that QE training was effective in goalkeeper’s anticipation and can be used as training supplement alongside skill training.